Word Heritage

The World had learned from the devastation and destruction of the two world wars, To promote understanding between people and to secure peace, UNESCO was founded on November 16, 1945, as the educational, scientific, and cultural organization of the UN. 

The World Heritage figure represents the interdependence of the world's natural and cultural diversity (Including Intangible Cultural Heritage). The idea of World Heritage was born, following the event in Abu Simbel during the 1960s. As a result, the initial member states of UNESCO signed the world heritage convention and were convicted to encourage the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity in 1972. Apart from contributing to the preservation of these remarkable places, it also promotes cultural exchange, dialogue, and peace in a sustainable way. For a site to be included in the world heritage list, it must first be nominated by the country in which it is located. the nomination is examined by international experts, who decide whether the inclusion in the list is justified. Ultimately, the World Heritage Committee, a body of 21 elected states, takes a vote. The World Heritage Sites show the diversity of cultures and natural phenomena and are tangible evidence of the bond between human beings and nature. 

Intangible Cultural Heritage, on the other hand, takes infinite forms. it is a source of human creativity and cultural diversity. Living Heritage brings human beings and communities closer together. The 2003 Convention aims at safeguarding this heritage and ensuring its continuous transmission. When the 2003 convention took effect, the lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage were established in 2008. In 2017, marked 10 years of the list was established, UNESCO listed almost 500 intangible cultural heritage elements. 

Cambodia became a member of UNESCO on July 3, 1951. The UNESCO office operated since then until it was closed in 1975 due to the internal political situation, and the organization's operations were suspended nationwide. Fortunately, the UNESCO office in Phnom Penh was reopened in 1991. Since the resumption of its operation across the country till the present day, Cambodia has three temple sites listed in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List and five Cambodian Intangible cultural heritage traditions or practices listed in the UNESCO lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage, as follows: 

 

Angkor Wat

Cambodia has been home to a Buddhist temple complex known as Angkor Wat for centuries. This temple, which encompasses over four acres, is one of the largest religious monuments in the world. Since it was constructed by King Suryavarman II, who had governed the territory from 1113 until 1150, it has been referred to as a "temple city" in this Sovannaphumi land, just like the center of the political hub and state temple.

Apsara Dance

There are many classical dance forms in Cambodia, of which a highly stylized art form was once confined mainly to the courts of the royal palace and performed mainly by females. Known formally in Khmer as Robam Apsara, the dancers of this classical form are often referred to as Apsara dancers. Apsara Dance is one of many dances in the Khmer Classical Dance. This dance invented in the mid-20th Century by the Royal Ballet of Cambodia, under the patronage of Queen Sisowat Kosamak. This dance form was first introduced to foreign countries and best known during the 1960s as the Khmer Royal Ballet. The first royal ballerina was Princess Norodom Sihanuk.

Chapei Dang Veng

Chapei Dang Veng (A Cambodian two-stringed, long-necked guitar) is used in Arak and Pleng Ka orchestras. Moreover, it is also performed solo instruments accompaniment of poetry, narrated folk stories, vocal duets of an argumentative style and riddle telling. Due to this special feature of the instrument which has brought it great popularity from early times right up to today and its music has been delighted by the Khmer people for many generations. 

Lakhaon Khaol (Male Masked Theatre)

Many tangible and intangible heritage of Cambodia has helped the country to become well-known on the international stage and they are a vital player on the world heritage stage. One of those is Lakhaon Khol.

Moni Mekhala Dance

Cambodia is a country full of culture and rich in civilization in Southeast Asia. Besides the cultural heritage, ancient temples, and traditional arts, there are intangible cultural heritages everywhere in Cambodia. There are also many different traditional intangible cultural heritage of their Khmer ancestors. The traditional Khmer dance has various styles. One of them is Robam Moni Mekhala Dance, a traditional dance popular among Cambodian people.

Preah Vihear Temple

Cambodia is a nation that has a lot of ancient temples built by the King in ancient times. These temples have become work architectures in the world. Cambodia has a lot of ancient temples in most provinces. Among those, Preah Vihear Temple is a sacred shrine which is located on the very high end and smooth plateau along the Dang Rek Mountain about 625 meters (above sea level) in Preah Vihear Province. Prasat Preah Vihear is stationed at a stunning location of all of the temples that were constructed during the six-hundred-year Khmer Empire because it provides a natural viewpoint that extends for several kilometers over a plain. Furthermore, in its role as an important symbol of royal spirituality, all the Khmer kings have undergone countless restorations and alterations throughout the course of its long history.

Robam Jun Por (Blessing Dance)

Cambodia, the Pearl of Asia, always dazzles you with its brilliant sceneries and indigenous Khmer culture that has been conserved and exalted for centuries. Robam Jun Por (Blessing Dance) is traditionally performed at the beginning of a ceremony to greet, bless, and offer good wishes to the audience. Khmer, as a nation, present their identity with pleasant, politeness, and honesty and prefer to develop friendships and build peace. The Blessing Dance is a masterpiece of Her Majesty the Queen Sisowath Kosamak Nearyrath who created this dance to reflect the pleasant character of the Khmer nation.

Sbaek Lakhaoun (Khmer Shadow Theatre)

It is believed shadow leather originated in Cambodia probably in the pre-Angkor period. Based on the evidence, for example, the stone inscription (K.155) at Kuk Roka, Kampong Thom from the pre-Angkor period, which describes woman puppeteers in a performance using figures in a ceremony invoking Sarasvati, the goddess of learning and the arts. This confirms the use of small puppet images in religious ceremonies. Based on this inscription, we believe that Khmer puppets originated in the pre-Angkor period (9th Century). 

Temple Zone of Sambor Prei Kuk Archaeological Site of Ancient Ishanapura

The archaeological site of Sambor Prei Kuk, “the temple in the richness of the forest” in the Khmer language, has been identified as Ishanapura, the capital of the Chenla Empire (Chenla Kingdom) that flourished in the late 6th and early 7th till 9th centuries CE. It is located in Kampong Thom Province, 30 km (19 miles) north of Stueng Sen city, 176 km (109 miles) east of Angkor and 206 (128 miles) north of Phnom Penh.

Tugging Rituals and Games

Tugging rituals and games in the rice-farming cultures of East Asia and Southeast Asia are enacted among communities to ensure abundant harvests and prosperity. They promote social solidarity, provide entertainment and mark the start of a new agricultural cycle. Many tugging rituals and games also have profound religious significance.